Sunday, June 7, 2020
Violence in Nursing Introduction Professional team synergy is imperative amongst the workers in any organization that wishes to achieve high standards of service from its workforce. Teamwork in nursing is a critical requirement for satisfactory outcomes in patient care. Team members achieve positive performance outcomes by adapting positive attitude, sharing a common vision and maintaining respect towards each other. The failure to observe these practices creates a negative working relationship. Unfavorable workplace relationships in any organization often lead to increased employee turnover, burnout, and poor performance. Nursing professionalism is not an exceptional sector. The repercussions of the nurse-to-nurse violence affect the team performance of any organization in a similar way.
Sunday, May 17, 2020
Minuit ChrÃ ©tien is the French Christmas Carol Equivalent of O Holy Night. Its a traditional Christmas Carol. Here are the lyrics and translation. The lyrics and translations are quite different. Youll find a version here on YouTube sung by Pavorotti.Ã Lyrics For The Christmas Carol Minuit ChrÃ ©tien - O Holy Night Minuit, chrÃ ©tiens, cest lheure solennelle,OÃ ¹ lHomme-Dieu descendit jusquÃ nousPour effacer la tache originelle Midnight, Christians, its the solemn hour,When God-man descended to usTo erase the stain of original sin Et de Son PÃ ¨re arrÃ ªter le courroux.Le monde entier tressaille despÃ ©ranceEn cette nuit qui lui donne un Sauveur. And to end the wrath of His Father.The entire world thrills with hopeOn this night that gives it a Savior. Peuple Ã genoux, attends ta dÃ ©livrance.NoÃ «l, NoÃ «l, voici le RÃ ©dempteur,NoÃ «l, NoÃ «l, voici le RÃ ©dempteur ! People kneel down, wait for your deliverance.Christmas, Christmas, here is the Redeemer,Christmas, Christmas, here is the Redeemer! Le RÃ ©dempteur a brisÃ © toute entrave :La terre est libre, et le ciel est ouvert.Il voit un frÃ ¨re oÃ ¹ nÃ ©tait quun esclave, The Redeemer has overcome every obstacle:The Earth is free, and Heaven is open.He sees a brother where there was only a slave, Lamour unit ceux quenchaÃ ®nait le fer.Qui Lui dira notre reconnaissance,Cest pour nous tous quIl naÃ ®t,QuIl souffre et meurt. Love unites those that iron had chained.Who will tell Him of our gratitude,Its for all of us that He is born,That He suffers and dies.Ã Peuple debout ! Chante ta dÃ ©livrance,NoÃ «l, NoÃ «l, chantons le RÃ ©dempteur,NoÃ «l, NoÃ «l, chantons le RÃ ©dempteur ! People stand up! Sing of your deliverance,Christmas, Christmas, sing of the Redeemer,Christmas, Christmas, sing of the Redeemer! If you enjoy this article, you may also enjoy my enunciated recording of the Catholic mass prayers in French. Jai Ã ©crit beaucoup darticles et dhistoires sur NoÃ «l en France:- Christmas in France Dialogue - French English Bilingual Easy Story- Qui est Saint Nicolas ? Dialogue en FranÃ §ais Facile- Meet the French Santa - French English Bilingual Easy Story- 8 Gift Ideas for Your Francophile Friends- Petit Papa NoÃ «l - The Most Famous French Christmas Song (with a link to a video of my daughter singing it!) Joyeuses fÃ ªtes de fin dannÃ ©e ! Happy Holidays.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The Creation of Careers through Physics Physics is often deemed Ã¢â¬Å"uselessÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"stressfulÃ¢â¬ by young students taking the course in high school and college. However, many you students donÃ¢â¬â¢t the advantages and opportunityÃ¢â¬â¢s that the subject can provide for them in the future. Most young adults think that Physics will most likely not help them in the future and end up being waste of time and a credit, but, most of them donÃ¢â¬â¢t know that the careers that physics provides can both high paying and fun . Over the course of this research paper, I hope I can provide sustainable reasoning on why Physics can help us in the near future. This first careers I will be presenting will have to do with Kinematics, the word that most physics students are annoyed of hearing. Most high school students often dream about going into the engineering field. Some donÃ¢â¬â¢t know that this field itself uses physics, a lot. A specific career that often uses kinematics i s a Mechanical Engineer. The field requires such precision in building the interior or exterior of the machine the engineer is designing, that the engineer needs to be as precise as possible with his calculations. Mechanical engineers are often interacting with the distribution of power. They create machines that can benefit humans or benefit the environment such as electric generations, engines, turbines, elevators, and escalators. Entering the field will require at least a BachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree in mechanical engineering and a ProfessionalShow MoreRelatedThe Life of Nicholas Tesla986 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages1884 to continue his career in engineering. TeslaÃ¢â¬â¢s parents were both Serbian, his father was an Orthodox priest, writer and poet, while his mother was a creative and had the talent to construct things, especially her electronic every day household items. His father wanted him to become a priest but Tesla followed the mind set and footsteps of his mother and went above a nd beyond with his skills and knowledge. Like normal high school students, Tesla studied mathematics and physics at the UniversityRead MoreWhat I Want With My Life781 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthe advancement of human knowledge. Ã¢â¬Å"Physics and Music? How in the world are those fields related?Ã¢â¬ When I would speak to people about my interests they would ask, Ã¢â¬Å"Are you doing physics as a substitute for your music career?Ã¢â¬ or vice versa. I refuse to choose between science and the arts; I want to do both. Thankfully, physics is one of the most all-encompassing and applicable fields in science. In the future I would like to find the overlap between physics and music. By understanding the workingsRead MoreThe Greatest Thinker Of The 20th Century1655 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEinstein Albert Abraham Einstein. It is a name we all know, the name of, perhaps, the greatest thinker of the 20th century. He revolutionized the world with his thinking, not just in physics, but also in philosophy, ethics, and religion. In 2000, he was named Time MagazineÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Person of the CenturyÃ¢â¬ . That alone can tell you how much Einstein affected the way one sees the world. He changed the world so much, that his formulas and hypotheses are held as the foundation for modern science. Every greatRead MoreAn Interview With A Mechanical Engineer1443 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWhen college students enter a career field, we encounter many problems and concerns, such as rules, traditions, and the writing involve. By doing the Discipline Investigation Assignment, it helps me to explore my future career field and get advice on how to do well in the industry. Also, this assignment is a great way to find out the struggles and problems as we encounter a new profession. The discourse community I have chosen is Mechanical Engineering. I am very passionate in doing machine workRead MoreWhich Modern Thinker, Individual, or Leader Has the Greatest Chance of Having a Long-tern Influence?1627 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesscholarship, not an influence in the realm of the public, as influences upon the public may be the product of manipulation. However, leaders who have created influence on the public through the use of their minds may create a lasting influence. Influences may, however, be of intangible intellectual knowledge, such as theoretical physics, which has provided further understanding of the modern world. However, these advances are less likely to provide a lasting influence, unlike the world of engineering, in whichRead MoreStephen Hawking : A Scientist977 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageswould draw himÃ¢â¬ Isobel Hawing explained (Hawking qtd. in Ã¢â¬Å"Stephen Hawking BiographyÃ¢â¬ ). At seventeen Stephen Hawking earned a scholarship to Oxford University College. He hoped to study mathematicsÃ¢â¬â¢ but because they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t offer it, he settled for physics, more specifically cosmology. Later on Stephen Hawking calculated that he did about one hour of work per day and yet three years later Stephen Hawking graduated first in his honors class with a natural science degree. He left Oxford too Trinity HallRead MoreDakotah Alexander 3/17/14 Physics Career As my physics occupation, I have selected Photography1400 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesDakotah Alexander 3/17/14 Physics Career As my physics occupation, I have selected Photography which is the talent or preparation of capturing and handling photographs. The art of Photography allows me to experience perfection in circadian light. Or perhaps even imperfect perfection. Being able to capture the most beautiful fascinations is an occurrence few encounter. Many individuals I discern ascertain the belief that they arenÃ¢â¬â¢t picturesque. A photographer that has a true love of photography believesRead MoreThe Evolution of the Microscope Essay784 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe first form of the microscope was a crystal that was found by someone from a long time ago. The crystal was thick in the middle, but thinner around the egdes. The crystal made things look bigger when someone looked through it. The pearson also noticed that if the sun shone through the crystal, certain things could get burnt or set on fire. They were known as magnifiers. Magnifiers were mentioned in the writings of the two Roman philosophers, Se neca and Pliny. Apperantly, maginfiers werent reallyRead MoreEssay on Biography of Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev1141 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesRussian chemist and inventor, born on February 8, 1834, in Tobolsk, Russia. The 17th child of Ivanovich Pavlovich and Maria Dmitrievna Mendeleev. Known for his brilliant intellectual ability, sharp memory, and a passionate fascination for mathematics, physics, and geography. He died January 20, 1907, in St. Petersburg, Russia. Between those years he lived a successful life full of knowledge, adventure, fellow chemists, and tragedy. In his early childhood, Dmitri Mendeleev entered the Tobolsk gymnasiumRead MoreEducation As A Keystone Of The American Culture1727 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesenough for students to handle themselves well within the workplace is debatable. In order to fully develop studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ minds to prepare them for their lives beyond the university, they should be exposed to a variety of subjects during their university career so they are more capable of successfully confronting situations that appear both within their academic studies and beyond. In other words, universities should require students to take classes that do not pertain directly to their selected majors.
The True American Cowboy Essay The True American CowboyAs the twentieth century approached, America was experiencing a time of considerable expansion. All eyes were looking for ways to make the United States a larger, more powerful, and more efficient country. Because of this wave in American society, there was no movement given more devotion than the settling of the West. The range-cattle industry in its various aspects, and in its importance to the United States and particularly to the Great Plains, has been a subject of focus to Americans since its origin in the mid 1800s. This industry was rendered possible by such factors as vast sections of fertile land, the rise of heavy industry involving the great demand for beef, and projected commercial tributaries, such as railroad lines across the frontier. The West was turning toward the future A future that held industrial promises of high monetary rewards as well as a valuable addition to a growing America. However, like any other industry, the West needed a labor force. Workers with special skills and qualities were necessary to support a booming new frontier. Previously untaught skills such as riding, roping, and branding could not simply be acquired by the average American. Athletic, rugged men were needed to settle the West. However, these men also needed inborn courage and quick thinking to utilize these skills effectively. The general public, however, under the influence of decades of Western movies and television shows have created an imagery of these men of the west or cowboys that is extremely inaccurate. American society has come to regard these settlers as the purest and noblest Anglo-Saxons. In reality, a great portion of the work contributed towards the settling of the western frontier was performed by minorities, largely consisting of African Americans. Kenneth W. Porter has devoted his life to researching the truths about African-Americans in the West. He chronicles his findings in his book, The Negro on the American Frontier. Porter proves that the role of the black man during the settling of the of the land west of the Mississippi River that stretched from the Rio Grande to the Canadian border was crucial not only to the cattle industry, but to the entire country. In his findings, Porter reveals that the West was one of Americas first non-segregated territories, both physically and morally. This integration was a crucial step towards physical productivity as well as social productivity. During the great expansion of the West between 1866-1900 it is authoritatively estimated by General George W. Saunders of the Texas Trail Drivers Association that of the 50,000-75,000 cowboys who helped to created the West, 25 percent were black (Porter, 1971). However, to merely state that there were 13,000-19,000 Black cowboys is inaccurate simply because the American definition of a cowboy has become distorted. To understand the role of the blacks in the West, one must first comprehend what the cattle-industry workers or cowboys truly did. To move a herd of cattle men do not simply jump on horses and scream and hit until the herd moves. Contrary to common thought, there was a very systematic hierarchy of jobs involved in being a frontiersman. The group together was referred to as the trail herd outfit. This outfit usually consisted of about a dozed men, each with an individual responsibility. As in any group, there was a leader, second in command, and then three levels of workers. Negroes occupied all positions of the cattle-industry employees, from the usually low wrangler through ordinary hand to top hand and lofty cook. However, it would never be tolerated to give the distinguished honor of ranch or trail boss to a man with colored skin. Although the Black cowboys seem to have been treated much more fairly than their relatives in other regions of the country, it must be understood that at this point in history the United States was rebounding from a traumatic Civil War. This left a bitter taste in the mouth of many Americans and hostile feelings towards Negroes were still inundating the country. These conflicts could be seen the West. These feelings were simply blurred by the other hardships that accompanied the settling of the new frontier. African-American men were not simply handed important jobs out of pity, they were there for a reason. While, there were plenty of white men willing to work for the same extremely low wages, the hostile attitudes held by whites were generally overlooked in compensation for the more than adequate work performed by blacks. Black cowboys, whether on ranch or trail, were generally regarded as good workers, who got along well with others and who took pride in their work. One white Texan, a former cowboy and rancher, even went so far as to say, There was no better cowman on Earth than the Negro (Porter, 1971). Endangered species 3 EssayThe black cowboys life was hard, tedious, and lonely with very few luxuries. Despite these hardships, the African-American frontiersmen lived a somewhat dignified life. They were not burdened with the constraints placed upon many other blacks throughout the country. This was especially crucial to those who were previously living in the South and trying to survive as sharecroppers during the enactment of the Jim Crow laws. Instead of remaining prone to harsh treatment, they worked on the ranches, herding and branding cattle. The real cowboys were black, white, brown, and red. They ate together, did the same jobs, spent weeks with each other, and shared the same dangers. Together cowboys rode out of Texas along many notorious trails, such as the Chisholm, Western, and Goodnight-Loving trails that went northward towards Kansas, the Dakotas, Colorado, and Wyoming. Many of these rugged outdoorsmen were killed in stampedes, frozen to death, exhausted from the he at, or even drowned. Some remained on the northern plains, while some migrated back South, and some, like Nat Love, ended up somewhere in the middle (Porter, 1971). Unfortunately, today the true history of the West has become a nothing more than a myth. History was replaced by fiction, and these falsehoods are perceived by todays society as facts. The true American cowboy, white or black, no longer exists in the minds of Americans.It is only as one delves deeper into the facts that the unperceived truth arises. The success of settling the West can be contributed to men such as Nat Love, but one can certainly not omit the hardworking cowboys who did not live such a glamorous life. The Negro cowboys of this era played a crucial role in facilitating any work on Americas new frontier. The Black cowboys were essential to the United States during the late 1800s, in a time when any Negro needed great perseverance against prejudice. For their valiant efforts the Black cowboys should be give n great honor and prestige. Bibliography:Love, Nat, The Life and Adventures of Nat Love, Better Known in the Cattle Country asDead Wood Dick, New York; Arno Press, 1968. Porter, Kenneth W., The Negro on the American Frontier, New York; Arno Press, 1971.
Monday, April 20, 2020
Medical Terminology plus Paper Medial Imaginary midline dividing the body into equal right and left halves Lateral lyig at or extending toward the right or left side intermediate between a more medial and a more lateral structure Proximal Closer to trunk Distal Farther from the trunk Superficial near the outer surface Deep Further away from the surface Frontal or coronal plane Divides the body into fron and back halves Sagittal or lateral plan Divides the body in right and left halves Transverse or cross-section plane Divides the body into horizontal planes Dorsiflexion movement of the foot and the leg so that the toes are brought closer to the shin Plantar flexion flexion of the entire foot inferiorly, as if pressing an automobile pedal Pronation lying face downward Rotation to twist or revolve Supination Lying flat on the back 11 body systems Respiratory, Reproductive, Digestive, Nervous, Endocrine, Urinary, Lymphatic, Circulatory Muscular, Skeletal, Integumentary ICD-10 has how many procedure codes 72,081 In ICD-10 how many of the 72081 seven character alphanumeric procedure codes are in the Medical/Surgical Section 62,022 Character 1 Section Character 2 Body System Character 3 Root Operation Character 4 Body part Character 5 Approach Character 6 Device Character 7 Qualifier Pituitary gland is in which body cavity Cranial Blood held back from an area Ischemia amyl starch cheil lip choledocho common bile duct cholecyst gallbladder viscer internal organs ana up ase enzyme chezia elimination, defecation ectasis stretching, dilation, widening emia blood condition genic pertaining to, producing, producted by or in iasis condition of ole little, small plasia development, formation, growth prandial meal ule little, small um, ium structure, tissue, thing y condition, process borborygmus rumbling sound made by the movement of gas in the intestine aphthous stomatitis canker sores oral leukoplakia thickened white patches of epithelium occur on the mucous membranes especially of the mouth. achalasia failure of a ring of muscle (as a sphincter) to relax anal fissure torn lining of the anal canal anal fistula small tunnel that forms under the skin and connects a previously infected anal gland to the skin on the buttocks outsie the anus cirrhosis chronic degeneration of the liver 4th most common cancer in the US colorectal cancer Crohns disease chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract, a type of inflammatory bowel disease dysentery disease characterized by severe diarrhea with passage of mucus and blood and usually caused by infection hemochromatosis inherited disorder of excessive body accumulation of iron intussusception telescoping of the intestines irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) cluster of symptoms, consisting most commonly of abdominal pain, bloating, constipation and diarrhea viral hepatitis inflammation of the liver caused by a virus volvulus torsion of a loop of intestine, causing obstruction cheilosis fissuring and dry scaling of the vermilion surface of the lips and angles of the mouth, a characteristic of riboflavin deficiency cholestasis condition caused by rapidly developing (acute) or long-term (chronic) interruption in the excretion of bile. deglutition medical term for swallowing emulsification breaks apart lart fat globules so fat can be digested eructation gas expelled from the stomach through the mouth; belching glycogenolysis breakdown of glycogen especially to glucose mesentery double fold of peritoneum which stretches around the abdominal organs mesentery parts include omentum and mesocolon sialoadenectomy removal or excsion of salivary gland steatorrhea an excess of fat in the stools azot/o urea, nitrogen cali/o calyx cup shaped organ ket/o ketones pyel/o renal pelvis trigon/o area within the bladder trophin stimulation the function of (to turn in or act on) vesic/o urinary bladder -in, ine a substance poietin substance that forms pyelonephritis inflammation of the renal parenchyma and renal pelvis diabetes insipidus antidiuretic hormone is not sereted adeuqately or the kidney is resistant to ADHs effect nephrotic syndrome nephrosis uremia waste accumulates in the blood causing a toxic state often characterized by azotemia, or too much nitrogen in the blood arteriovenous fistula abnormal connection between an artery and a vein bypassing the capillaries, used with hemodialysis patients cyesis pregnancy episi/o vulva galact/o milk lact/o milk metr/o uterus uter/o uterus hystero uterus myom/o muscle, tumor phor/o to bear -arche beginning tocia labor, birth horiocarcinoma malignant tumor of the placenta adnexa uteri ovaries, fallopian tubes, and supporting ligaments chorion outer layer of two membreans surrounding the embryo fimbriae finger projections at the end of the fallopian tubes parturition the act of giving birth uterine serosa outermost layer surrounding the uterus vulva labia, external female genitalia
Sunday, March 15, 2020
Data Verification and Validation Essay Example Data Verification and Validation Essay Data Verification and Validation Essay These are some of the useful characteristics, which make using a database program much more efficient than such programs as desktop publisher or Microsoft excel. Databases are much more malleable than other afore-mentioned programs, they can either be a single file containing a large number of records or a collection of related files. Most modern databases are relational, this word describes the way in which the data is organised within the database. A relational database stores data in tables that are linked together using common fields. This factor is most useful for the database being designed for Fab Food Pix, as the amount of client information needed by the company covers such a wide variety of areas a relational database would most appropriate to accommodate these specifics. Having investigated other possible programs that could be used to create a database, it has been decided that a program purposefully designed to make databases will be used. There are number of different database programs, such as Microsoft access, Paradox or Lotus Approach. However, Paradox and Lotus approach are not available, so Microsoft Access must be used. Microsoft Access is also available in the workplace so it is the perfect program to use.Ã Data Collection, Capture and InputÃ For a database to be of use, the information it is to consist of, must be collected, captured (on paper) and then input into the previously designed database. In order for these targets to be attained, a data capture form must be created. Information will be collected from the companys present client information file this information will then be recorded onto the previously created data capture form any information not found here will be obtained through questionnaires. The currently used manual database will be keyed into the computer. A data capture form will be designed and implemented to collect the details of new clients ringing up to book the photographer for a job. The same data capture form will be used to record the information of new clients who turn up at the studio, inquiring about the services provided. All the information will be stored, before the client is used, therefore only one data capture form will be needed. The client database, which is to be updated to a computerised version will primarily be used for mail shots, cards and promotional information as well as sending out invoices. As these are substantially separate, a relational database will be used, so that when an invoice is being composed, the name, company, position and address of the client can be displayed after searching for the specific job and its costs. The first table in the database will contain information for producing mail shots. There are not many different forms of verification, proof reading, where once the document has been typed out, it is read by a proof reader who points out or highlights any mistakes. However, this is not very reliable as, there is always a possibility that the proof reader will not pick up every single mistake grammatical or spelling. The other form of verification is double entry. This is when two people write out the specified information on two different computers. The computers then match up the two sets of correct data. If not all the information is matched up, mistakes are present. It is unlikely that each person will make no mistakes, or make the same mistakes. It is likely that where one person has made a mistake, someone else will not have. The document (if found to be containing mistakes) must then be proof read to find the mistakes and the sources of the information must be used to then correct the document. It is most beneficial to have a validation rule on the database, to check for any errors. Validation rules can be made for the majority or fields. Fields such as Raw Total, VAT and Total cannot have validation rules, as there is the possibility that every single entry in this field may be different. Due to the type of data entered into my relational database, validation rules are not often appropriate. For instance in such a field as Client Name and Company Name a validation rule could not be used as it is not possible to know all clients and companys which were to be entered into the database as this is occasionally updated. However, a validation rule was made for fields such as Client ID, Job Dates, Dates of Re-Shoots, Date of Payment the validation rules of majority is Date/Time the format must then be set to the specific type of date. The date can be General Date, 05/09/99 17:32:44, Long Date, 28 December 1987, Medium Date, 28-Dec-87, Short Date, 28/12/87, Long Time, such as; 17:32:44, Medium Time, 05:32, or Sort Time, 17:32. The validation rule for the Client ID field is Auto Number, this means the computer will automatically fill in this field with a unique number, there will only be one each number. This rule prevents a Client ID number from being entered more than once. Other fields have been set, so that unless information is entered, the user is not able to progress any further. Relating the DatabaseÃ In order to relate the two tables effectively, the primary key field Client ID, in the Client Details table was made an automatic number (i.e. all the numbers included in this field were unique.) this primary key field was used as a foreign key in the Job Details table, which was not an automatic number, as a client could have numerous jobs with the same photographer. Therefore, I created another key Job Dates, this key along with the Client ID key made each record unique.
Friday, February 28, 2020
Patient Controlled Analgesia - Essay Example 1989). This was first introduced in 1970 into obstetric practise where the patient simply controlled the administration of i.v. pethidine by operation of a spring loaded clamp on an infusion set! In a way, it mimics the use of the PCA 50:50 nitrous oxide/oxygen gas mixture (Entonox). Patient Controlled Analgesia refers to a particular type of breakthrough dosing used when a predetermined parenteral drug dose is injected following the push of a button. In reality not all PCA breakthrough doses are controlled or administered by patients, who may be physically or mentally impaired. Clinicians or families may administer the breakthrough dose in such cases, which is still often (erroneously) called the PCA dose. Thus, in practice parenteral breakthrough doses, when programmed by a pump are often referred to as PCA doses, regardless of who administers the dose. In a general sense, patient-controlled analgesia refers to a process where patients can determine when and how much medication the y receive, regardless of analgesic technique. On the other hand, the term is more commonly used to describe a method of pain relief which uses disposable or electronic infusion devices and allows patients to self-administer analgesic drugs, usually intravenous (i.v.) opioids, as required. Patient-controlled analgesia produces a modest improvement in pain relief over a 24 hour period compared with conventional analgesia. It is preferred by patients, and is not associated with additional side effects. For many patients, mainly those having major abdominal surgery, PCA offers the greatest pain relief and the most flexibility. A PCA device consists of a pump, a reservoir to hold the drug and a handset with a button that administers a dose of drug when activated by the patient. Patient receives pain medication by pressing a button permitting the patient to take control of the pain. This eases the anxious waiting for pain relief and the peaks of pain (Macintyre PE, Runciman WB, Webb RK. 1 990). Patient controlled analgesia is widely used for postoperative pain relief in both children and adults. Unfortunately, postoperative pain control is often the last concern discussed with patients even though it can become the major concern after the operation is performed. Most patients are more worried concerning the potential surgery and anaesthetic complications prior to surgery, than they are with pain control after surgery. Therefore, patients are often overshadowed by the patient's anxiety regarding the procedure Postoperative pain management actually starts preoperatively. The anaesthesiologists and surgeon will decide on a plan prior to the surgery. A major deciding factor with regard to choosing an appropriate plan will depend on whether the patient is to be discharged the same day (day surgery) or will be admitted after surgery. With right preoperative teaching and encouragement, children as young as 6 to 7 years of age can independently use the PCA pump to provide good post operative pain relief (Kluger and Owen H. 1990). Children between the ages of 4 and 6, though, generally require encouragement from the parents and nursing staff to push the button before anticipated painful movements or